|The life and death of stones (1)|
|*||Territory that's too small|
|Dia. 1. The black stones are surrounded by White. They have only one breathing space, the point in the middle. If White plays there, Black loses his breathing space and is captured. (Dia. 2, Dia. 3)|
|Dia. 2||Dia. 3|
|*||Territory that's too small: 2|
|Dia. 4. This black group has two breathing spaces in the middle. Even so, all these black stones will be captured. Let's look at Dias. 5 and 6.|
|Dia. 5. In order to take away Black's breathing spaces, White has played at 1. Black captures 1 by playing 2, but when he does so he is left with only one breathing space. This is the same as Dia. 1 above, so in the end Black is captured.
|Dia. 6. Well, what will happen if Black ignores White and does nothing?
Again, his whole group is captured when White plays 2.
|In short, the black groups in Dias. 1 and 4 are already dead even if White doesn't play anything.
|*||The smallest life|
|Dia. 7. This black group has three breathing spaces in the middle. Is it alive?|
|Dia. 8. White plays 1, so Black captures him by playing 2.
Dia. 9. This is the shape after Black has captured White. Black has two breathing spaces.
White can't play any more stones inside Black's territory. You can play inside an enemy territory only when your stone has a breathing space or, if you don't have a breathing space, when you take away all of the opponent's breathing spaces (that is, you capture him).
|Dia. 8||Dia. 9|
|Dia. 10. White plays 1 in the centre of Black's breathing spaces. If Black 2, White 3 captures all the black stones.
|White 1 is the vital point. Because White played there first, Black died. If Black plays there first, as in Dia. 9, Black lives.|